Full list of scientific publications
Author Text Format Key: NLH staff, NLH placement student, NLH scientific committee member, external collaborator.
Halswell P, Daniels CL, Hardwick, J., Johanning L. Evaluation framework for external and internal parameters associated with Sea Based Container Culture (SBCC): Towards understanding rearing success in European lobsters (Homarus gammarus). Submitted to Aquaculture in November 2017 in review.
Ellis CD, Hodgson DJ, Daniels CL, Collins M, Griffiths AGF. (2017) Population genetic structure in European lobsters: implications for connectivity, diversity and hatchery stocking. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 563; 123–137. Full text
Small DP, Calosi P, Boothroyd D, Widdicombe S, Spicer JI. (2016) The sensitivity of the early benthic juvenile stage of the European lobster Homarus gammarus (L.) to elevated pCO2 and temperature. Marine Biology. 163 (3); 1-2. Full text
Halswell P, Daniels CL, Johanning L. (2016) Sea-based container culture (SBCC) hydrodynamic design assessment for European lobsters (Homarus gammarus). Aquacultural Engineering. 74; 157-173. Full text
Powell A, Scolding JWS. (2016) Direct application of ozone in aquaculture systems. Reviews in Aquaculture. Full text
Middlemiss KL, Urbina MA, Wilson RW. (2016) Effects of seawater alkalinity on calcium and acid–base regulation in juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus) during a moult cycle. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 193; 22-8. Full text
Ellis CD, Hodgson DJ, André C, Knutsen H, Sørdalen TK, Griffiths AGF. (2015) Genotype reconstruction of paternity in European lobsters (Homarus gammarus). PLoS ONE. 10 (11); e0139585. Full text
Daniels CL, Wills B, Ruiz-Perez M, Miles E, Wilson RW, Boothroyd D. (2015) Development of sea based container culture for rearing European lobster (Homarus gammarus) around South West England. Aquaculture. 448; 186-195. Full text
Ellis CD, Knott H, Daniels CL, Witt MJ, Hodgson DJ. (2015) Geographic and environmental drivers of fecundity in the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). . ICES Journal of Marine Science. 72 (S1); i91-i100. Full text
Ellis CD, Hodgson DJ, Daniels CL, Boothroyd DP, Bannister RCA, Griffiths AGF. (2015) European lobster stocking requires comprehensive impact assessment to determine fishery benefits. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 72 (S1); i35-i48. Full text
Small DP, Calosi P, Boothroyd D, Widdicombe S, Spicer JI. (2015) Stage-specific changes in physiological and life-history responses to elevated temperature and pCO2 during the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 88(5); 494-507. Full text
Middlemiss KL, Daniels CL, Urbina MA, Wilson RW. (2015) Combined effects of UV irradiation, ozonation and the probiotic Bacillus spp. On growth, survival and general fitness of European lobster (Homarus gammarus). Aquaculture. 444; 99-107. Full text
Middlemiss KL, Urbina MA, Wilson RW. (2015) Microbial proliferation on gill structures of juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus) during a moult cycle. Helgoland Marine Research. 69 (4); 401-410. Full text
Merrifield DL, Balcazar JL, Daniels CL, Zhou Z, Carnevali O, Yun-Zhang S, et al. (2014) Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fish and Crustaceans. In: Aquaculture Nutrition: Gut Health, Probiotics and Prebiotics. Editors: Merrifield DL, Ringø E. Wiley Blackwell. pp 128-168
Castex M, Daniels CL, Chim L. (2014) Probiotic Applications in Crustaceans. In: Aquaculture Nutrition: Gut Health, Probiotics and Prebiotics. Editors: Merrifield DL, Ringø E. Wiley Blackwell. pp 290-327.
Daniels CL, Hoseinifar SH. (2014) Prebiotic Applications in Shellfish. In: Aquaculture Nutrition: Gut Health, Probiotics and Prebiotics. Editors: Merrifield DL, Ringø E. Wiley Blackwell. pp 401-418.
Neenan ST, Hodgson DJ, Tregenza T, Boothroyd D, Ellis CD. (2014) The suitability of VIE tags to assess stock enhancement success in juvenile European lobsters (Homarus gammarus). Aquaculture Research. 46 (12); 2913–2923. Full text
Daniels CL, Merrifield DL, Ringø E, Davies SJ. (2013) Probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic applications for the improvement of larval European lobster (Homarus gammarus) culture. Aquaculture. 416; 396-406. Full text
Scolding JWS, Powell A, Boothroyd DP, Shields RJ. (2012) The effect of ozonation on the survival, growth and microbiology of the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). Aquaculture. 364; 217-223. Full text
Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Carnevali O, Picchietti S, Avella M, Daniels CL, Güroy D, Davies SJ. (2011) Microbial manipulations to improve fish health and production–a Mediterranean perspective. Fish & Shellfish Immunology. 30 (1); 1-6. Full text
Daniels CL, Merrifield DL, Boothroyd DP, Davies SJ, Factor JR, Arnold KE. (2010) Effect of dietary Bacillus spp. and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on European lobster (Homarus gammarus L.) larvae growth performance, gut morphology and gut microbiota. Aquaculture. 304 (1); 49-57. Article overview only at Full text
Arnold KE, Findlay HS, Spicer JI, Daniels CL, Boothroyd D. (2009) Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.). Biogeosciences. 6 (8); 1747-1754. Full text
Arnold KE, Wells C, Spicer JI. (2009) Effect of an insect juvenile hormone analogue, Fenoxycarb®, on development and oxygen uptake by larval lobsters Homarus gammarus (L.). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology. 149 (3); 393-396. Full text
Selection of conference presentations
11th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management – Maine, USA June 2017Conference Summary
By Dr Charlie Ellis – LG2 Post Doc Research Assistant
Earlier this summer I was lucky enough to attend the 11th International Conference and Workshop on the Biology and Management of Lobsters (or the ‘ICWL’, by its much-needed abbreviation) which was held in Portland, Maine, USA. The conference occurs every 3-4 years and, despite its somewhat obscure-sounding name, is a big deal among marine biologists whose research is based on, or applies to, lobsters. Such a large community of scientists involved in research on lobsters is perhaps best rationalised with the accompanying knowledge that, globally, various lobster species are annually worth almost US$3,000,000,000 (that’s three billion bucks!) as a seafood commodity. The National Lobster Hatchery and our collaborations in ongoing European lobster research were particularly well represented. Along with my colleagues from Padstow, Carly Daniels and Dom Boothroyd, there were: Tom Jenkins, a PhD student from The University of Exeter researching the genetic connectivity and population structuring; Corey Holt, another Exeter PhD student investigating the microbiome and health of lobsters at CEFAS; Michelle Pond, a CEFAS scientist investigating histology and disease as part of our ongoing Lobster Grower 2 project, and; Grant Stentiford, an expert pathologist at Cefas who also happens to Chair the Hatchery’s board of scientific advisors.
After something of an ordeal getting there (including an unscheduled layover at Newark airport which soon offset our excitement at the fine views of the Empire State Building and Statue of Liberty), we settled in for the conference kick-off on the first of five days of research talks. Some sort of bigwig is often invited to launch conferences and the 11th ICWL was no exception, where Senator Angus King, the state’s political representative. What was exceptional though, was Senator King’s speech, which was funny, insightful, and displayed an intimate knowledge of climate change science, a subject of obvious concern to his region given the temperature-linked collapses in the hugely valuable American lobster stocks in warmer areas to the south. Jelle Atema, the only surviving delegate from the 1st edition of the conference, held in Perth in 1977, was also a fantastic choice as the opening plenary speaker, providing an overview of a fascinating career in sensory ecology and American lobster mating behaviour. Jelle showed a video of male lobsters fighting for dominance by locking claws in a kind of first-to-submit squeezing war! Interestingly, he found that once a hierarchy had been established through these battles, it is then maintained without any further conflicts, because weaker males can literally be smell the presence of dominant males, and they remember to keep clear of them. Pretty clever for a close relative of the woodlouse…!
The week’s talks were split into 17 themed sessions. Diseases & Parasites was first up, with Welsh wonderkid Charlotte Davies stepping in to co-Chair a session in which fellow countryman Corey demonstrated how tank- and sea-reared juvenile lobsters differ in internal microbiota, and Michelle showed fascinating examples of cells being torn apart from the inside out by a mystery ailment she is working to identify. Over in the Reproductive Biology stream, French researcher Martial Laurans showed the results of a mark-recapture survey of egg-bearing females in Brittany, with as many lobsters moving 50-100km as stayed within the area of release, suggesting that emigration is either greater than previously thought, or perhaps varies spatially between populations. Day two’s plenary was Paolo Prodohl, the Brazilian geneticist at Queens University, Belfast. Paolo presented findings from over a decade of research on European lobster genetics, including from his ongoing assessment of the impact of v-notching in Northern Ireland, which he evaluates by assigning newly-sampled lobsters to parents via genetic markers. This was of particular relevance to me and others at the Hatchery, as we plan to use this parentage-based tagging technique to similarly assess the impact of stocking releases in future. As ever, Professor Prodohl’s talk contained findings of potentially huge significance to the management and conservation of lobsters – such as the assertions that larger females contribute more recruitment than smaller females, that up to 20% of the current stock derives from egg-bearing females returned to the sea in the first year of v-notching, and that landings have doubled since the scheme began in 2003. Later, Kenzie Mazur presented results of her modelling work on American lobster stocks which also showed the massive difference v-notching can make to stock abundance; had no females been v-notched since the 1980’s, landings would be expected to shrink to only ~7 million tons per year, compared to the vast productivity of the current fishery, with landings in excess of 100 million tons, when more than half of berried females are returned to spawn.
By midweek we’d enjoyed a couple of enjoyable evenings exploring the pristine streets of Portland, and it was time for a day focussed on Industry. Carly and I both gave well-received talks in the Aquaculture session, inclusive of tank- and wild-based operations for both full grow-out and fishery restocking. Carly gave an update on our ongrowing project (www.lobstergrower.com ), while I presented the results of a semi-theoretical trial of parentage-based tagging which suggest that assignment of recaptured lobsters to parent-pairs, rather than mothers alone, can dramatically improve analytical accuracy. The session was sparsely attended, a shame particularly given the scope for aquaculture interventions to improve the supply of wild and farmed lobsters, and the vision of Maine lobstermen, 90% of whom believe that diversification into shellfish or seaweed culture will be required within the next 5 years, according to local biologist Caitlin Cleaver. Clive Jones and Greg Smith gave updates on the progress in their Australian hatchery of culturing several spiny lobster species and understanding their natural recruitment; Smith has quantified that 1 in 50 larvae reared in the hatchery survive to adulthood, an improvement of 100,000x their prospects in the wild! Meanwhile, across the Tasman Sea, scientists from the Cawthron Institute, including Rob Major, Alaric McCarthy and Kevin Heasman, provided insights into their attempts to culture the larvae and study the lifecycle of deep-water New Zealand scampi. An afternoon tour of local processors Ready Seafood put the scale of the American lobster fishery into context – Ready is just one company in just one town in just one state within the lobsters range, but they handle 5000 tonnes of lobsters each year, about the same volume as equates to the entire commercial catch of European lobsters!
The talk I found by far the most eye-opening was delivered by plenary Professor Bob Steneck, who lives and works an hour up the Maine coast from Portland. At 63, Bob has a wealth of experience and is only too happy to share it for the benefit of the next generations of scientists, who are unlikely to share his luck in having access to a submarine or ethical approval to tether lobsters to concrete blocks in order to observe what eats them! Bob showed how, over the past 60 years, lobster abundance has risen as the diversity and abundance of fish was drastically reduced. The most recent spike in lobster landings also follows the advent of a lucrative fishery for urchin in the 1990s, whose removal was followed by an expansion of kelp beds, a preferred habitat of lobsters. And then there is the vast volume of fish used as trap bait – >100,000 tonnes of herring a year; the sooner Hull student Tom Evans comes up with a sustainable artificial alternative, the better! Most American lobster traps have escape gaps, so immature animals can stop in for an easy feed whenever they fancy. Recent studies have estimated that trap bait is a significant component of lobster diets, comprising up to 80% of a lobster’s sustenance in some areas. All of which conflicts the notion of Maine’s lobster stock being a ‘natural’ system; in Bob’s words, “we have created a domesticated environment for lobsters – we’ve wiped out all the predators and we’ve fed them!” Although I was aware of this feedback between fishing activities and seafood populations, this really resonated with me and led me to question some of my most fundamental assumptions. For example, it seems a given that reducing fishing pressure should increase stock abundance, but American lobster stocks might actually experience mass mortality through starvation if all trap fishing were to cease. And it significantly blurs the lines between the wild, natural seafood, which I’d always considered to be the best choice for the ethical consumer (providing it had been captured from sustainable stocks and without wider damage to the ocean ecosystem), and that reared via aquaculture. It turns out that reasons commonly given to advocate the avoidance of aquacultured fish, such as the inefficient use of edible proteins to rear a more valuable species, apply equally to wild stocks in the case of American lobsters. So rather than a truly wild population, perhaps it is better to think of intensely fished lobster stocks as the oceanic equivalents of cattle openly ranched without fences. Thinking about this paradox, it seems more accurate to conclude that the more intensively seafood is produced, the further away from a ‘natural’ product it is, regardless of whether it has lived in a farm or the wild.
These thoughts were still with me during the presentations which closed the conference, as each session Chair was invited to summarise the highlights from their session and review general progress in their research field. While every other Chair was clearly enthusiastic about the pace of development and quality of research being done in that sector, it was notable that the Aquaculture chair, Professor Andrew Jeffs of the University of Auckland took a different tone, instead choosing to highlight how painfully slow progress in aquaculture innovations has been. He said that the researchers actively working to innovate and solve issues in aquaculture were doing an excellent job, but that in general the field was criminally under-resourced considering the perilous status of many wild fisheries and ecosystems, and the potential for research in aquaculture to boost sustainability and productivity of the lobster seafood supplies and the coastal communities currently relying on their economic value.
I finished the week exhausted, but having thoroughly enjoyed my second experience of the ICWL. It was nice to rekindle a few friendships, make a whole lot of new ones, and feel a little more established as part of this unique and vibrant international research community. The countryside of Maine, the city of Portland, and the friendly people who inhabit both are well worthy of a visit should you ever get the chance. And though it can seem hard to justify a long-haul trip in which every evening was spent propping up the bar with my fellow ‘lobsterologists’, I promise it was strictly business, and we never deviated from talking lobster science! How many days left is it until we go down under to Perth for the 12th ICWL in 2020?!?!
Ellis CD., Scolding, J. & Daniels CL. 11th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management. June 2017. Lobster Grower: exploring mariculture of hatchery European lobsters for fisheries and aquaculture. Poster
Ellis CD. 11th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management. June 2017. LG2 – Evaluating parentage-based tagging for the identification of released hatchery lobsters.
Daniels CL. 11th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management. June 2017. LG2 – Clawed Lobster Aquaculture: an Industry reality.
10th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management – Cancun, Mexico May 2014Conference summary
In 2014, a team of 4 researchers from the National Lobster Hatchery and collaborating organisations travelled to Cancun, Mexico, for the 10th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management (ICWL). The week-long conference is the leading global forum for research into the ecology, biology and management of lobsters and their fisheries, and attracts marine scientists of international authority. Recurring every 3-5 years, the conference has been the primary platform for novel research and scientific debate involving these iconic marine species, with the latest edition attended by 182 participants from 21 countries.
The overarching emphasis of the 10th ICWL was “Lobsters in a Changing Climate”, but in all there were 14 themed sessions, including ‘Aquaculture, Nutrition, and Population Enhancement’, which was co-chaired by the Hatchery’s own Dr Carly Daniels. The NLH was strongly represented with presentations from Carly (in ‘Aquaculture…’) Charlie Ellis, (in ‘Genetics’ and ‘Reproductive Development and Physiology’) Dom Boothroyd (in ‘Climate Change’) and Adam Bates (in ‘Genetics’), as well as Scientific Committee chair Professor Grant Stentiford, who chaired and presented in the ‘Diseases and Parasites’ section. The conference proceedings, featuring 27 original articles (including two written by NLH researchers), were published as a supplementary issue of the important ICES Journal of Marine Science, which is available in full for free here.
Daniels CL. 10th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management. May 2014, Cancun, Mexico. Sea based container culture: potential for use in rearing Homarus gammarus in South West England.
Ellis CD. 10th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management. May 2014, Cancun, Mexico. Paternity and population genetics of lobsters.
Bates AH. 10th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management. May 2014, Cancun, Mexico. Improving the stocking and sea-ranching practices for Homarus gammarus through the application of next-generation genetic-sequencing and transcriptomic analysis.
Ellis CD. 10th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management. May 2014, Cancun, Mexico. Temperature accurately predicts fecundity in a regional lobster population.
Boothroyd DP. 10th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management. May 2014, Cancun, Mexico. Interactive effects of ocean warming and acidification on aspects of the developmental eco-physiology of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.
Daniels CL. Shellfish association of Great Britain – annual conference. May 2017. LG2 – Clawed Lobster Aquaculture: an Industry reality.
Daniels CL. Natural England – marine evidence and monitoring. February 2017, Nottingham, UK. Understanding the natural environment in St Austell Bay.
Jenkins TL. 50th UK Population Genetics Group Meeting and Conference. January 2017, Cambridge, UK. Population genomics of European lobster: SNP discovery and developing a SNP panel.
Daniels CL & Ellis CD. National Lobster Hatchery Christmas lecture series. December 2016, Padstow, UK. Lobster Grower 2.
Daniels CL. Marine Ecology Conservation Network. July 2016, Penryn, UK. Lobster Grower – Potential for sea-based on-growing.
Daniels CL. The American Lobster in a changing Ecosystem II. November 2015, Charlottetown, Canada. Optimising flow for oxygen consumption and feed availability in a controlled sea based environment.
Daniels CL. Meeting of the Seafish South West advisory committee. October 2016, Plymouth, UK. Lobster Grower – Lobster aquaculture, an industry reality?
Ellis CD. National Lobster Hatchery Christmas lecture series. December 2015, Padstow, UK. Tag-less monitoring of released lobsters in the catch: the (essential) next step for the National Lobster Hatchery.
Ellis CD. 46th Annual Conference of the Shellfish Association of Great Britain. May 2015, London, UK. Paternity and population genetics of Cornish lobsters.
Ellis CD. 47th UK Population Genetics Group Meeting and Conference. January 2014, Bath, UK. Understanding the impacts of European lobster stock enhancement in Cornwall.
Ellis CD. The European Meeting of PhD Students in Evolutionary Biology. September 2013, Penryn, UK. Sustainability in the Cornish lobster fishery: how can the national lobster hatchery assess stock enhancement impacts?
Ellis CD. Marine Crustacean Stock Enhancement in the UK; Measuring Impact. April 2013, Penryn, UK. Sustainability in the Cornish lobster fishery: how can the national lobster hatchery assess stock enhancement impacts?
Daniels CL. 9th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management. June 2011, Bergen, Norway. Bacterial manipulation in the gastrointestinal tract of early stage Homarus gammarus: using biotic dietary supplements to improve culture success.
Boothroyd DP. 9th International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management. June 2011, Bergen, Norway. An examination into the use of ozone delivery to control bacterial assemblages and enhance the performance of the early stages of the European lobster reared under intensive conditions.